Biology (BIOL)

View PDF

Expand all courses

Courses

Courses primarily for undergraduates:

(3-0) Cr. 3. F.S.SS.


Life considered at cellular, organism, and population levels. Function and diversity of the living world. Presentation of basic biological principles as well as topics and issues of current human interest. Does not satisfy biology major requirements.

Cr. 1. F.


Orientation to the scope of the biological sciences, and discussion of professional opportunities. Required of first year biology majors. Offered on a satisfactory-fail basis only.

(1-0) Cr. 0.5. S.


Introduction to biological science disciplines and professional opportunities through faculty presentations which examine a variety of current research topics. Offered on a satisfactory-fail basis only.

Cr. R. F.S.


Orientation to opportunities in Biology. Review of degree requirements and other information needed by students that have not participated in the first year Biology orientation courses. Offered on a satisfactory-fail basis only.

(3-0) Cr. 3. F.S.


A survey course of human biology, including principal structures and functions of the body systems and the diseases and disorders associated with them. Designed to meet general education requirements in natural science. Not recommended for those seeking a career in the allied health professions or for students majoring in life science. Does not satisfy biology major requirements.

(Cross-listed with ENV S). (3-0) Cr. 3. F.S.


An introduction to the structure and function of natural systems at scales from the individual to the biosphere and the complex interactions between humans and their environment. Discussions of human population growth, biodiversity, sustainability, resource use, and pollution. Does not satisfy biology major requirements.

(Cross-listed with ENSCI, ENV S). (2-0) Cr. 2. F.


Discussion of current and emerging environmental issues such as human population growth, energy use, loss of biodiversity, water resources, and climate change.

(Cross-listed with ENV S). (4-0) Cr. 2. S.

Prereq: One course in life sciences
Survey of the major groups of organisms and biological systems. Definition, measurements, and patterns of distribution of organisms. Sources of information about biodiversity. Does not satisfy biology major requirements. Half semester course.

(3-0) Cr. 3. F.S.

Prereq: High school biology
Introduction to the nature of life, including the diversity of microbial, plant, and animal life; the nature of heredity; evolution; and principles of ecology. Intended for life science majors.

(0-3) Cr. 1. F.S.

Prereq: Credit or enrollment in BIOL 211
Laboratory to accompany 211.

(3-0) Cr. 3. F.S.

Prereq: High School Biology; high school chemistry or credit or enrollment in CHEM 163 or CHEM 177
Introduction to the chemical, molecular, and cellular basis of life; form and function of microbial, plant, and animal life. Intended for life science majors.

(0-3) Cr. 1. F.S.

Prereq: credit or enrollment in BIOL 212
Laboratory to accompany 212.

(Cross-listed with ENSCI). (3-0) Cr. 3. S.


Plant and microbial processes in environmental systems including their interactions with human activities.

(3-0) Cr. 3. F.

Prereq: High School Biology and Chemistry, or BIOL 101
An introduction to human anatomy, beginning with cells and tissues, surveying all body systems, relating form to function. Systems covered include: integumentary, bones and joints, muscles, nervous, sensory, endocrine, circulatory, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive. Pre-Medical students should consider BIOL 351 for their anatomy background. Does not satisfy biology major requirements.

(0-3) Cr. 1. F.

Prereq: Credit or enrollment in BIOL 255
Investigation of human anatomy using models and dissections of preserved organs and model mammals. Pre-Medical students should consider 351 for their anatomy background. Does not satisfy biology major requirements.

(3-0) Cr. 3. S.

Prereq: High School Biology and Chemistry, or BIOL 101, or BIOL 255 (recommended)
An introduction to human physiology, studying the function of all body systems. Systems covered include: integumentary, bones and joints, muscles, nervous, sensory, endocrine, circulatory, lymphatic and immune, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive. Pre-Medical students should consider 335 for their physiology background. Does not satisfy biology major requirements.

(0-3) Cr. 1. S.

Prereq: Credit or enrollment in BIOL 256
Student-conducted experiments investigating concepts of human physiology with computer data acquisition and analysis. Interpretation of experimental results and preparation of lab reports. Pre-Medical students should consider 335 for their anatomy and physiology background. Does not satisfy biology major requirements.

(Cross-listed with W S). (3-0) Cr. 3. Alt. F., offered odd-numbered years.

Prereq: a 200 level course in science, engineering or women's studies; ENGL 250
The interrelationships of women and science and engineering examined from historical, sociological, philosophical, and biological perspectives. Factors contributing to under-representation; feminist critiques of science; examination of successful strategies. Does not satisfy biology major advanced credit requirements.
Meets U.S. Diversity Requirement

(Cross-listed with A ECL, ENSCI). (3-3) Cr. 4. F.SS.

Prereq: BIOL 211, BIOL 211L, BIOL 212, and BIOL 212L
Fundamental concepts and principles of ecology dealing with organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems. Laboratory and field exercises examine ecological principles and methods as well as illustrate habitats.

(Cross-listed with GEN). (3-0) Cr. 3. F.S.SS.

Prereq: BIOL 211, BIOL 211L, BIOL 212, and BIOL 212L
Introduction to the principles of transmission and molecular genetics of plants, animals, and bacteria. Recombination, structure and replication of DNA, gene expression, cloning, quantitative genetics, and population genetics. Students may receive graduation credit for no more than one of the following: Gen 260, Gen 313 and 313L, Gen 320, Biol 313 and 313L, and Agron 320.

(Cross-listed with GEN). (0-3) Cr. 1. F.S.

Prereq: Credit or enrollment in BIOL 313
Laboratory to accompany 313. Students may receive graduation credit for no more than one of the following: Biol 313 and 313L, Gen 260, Gen 313, Gen 320, and Agron 320.

(3-0) Cr. 3. F.S.

Prereq: BIOL 211, BIOL 211L, BIOL 212, BIOL 212L
Integration of elementary principles of metabolism, bioenergetics, cell structure, and cell function to develop a molecular view of how the cell works.

(3-0) Cr. 3. F.S.

Prereq: BIOL 211, BIOL 211L, BIOL 212, BIOL 212L.
The mechanisms of evolution. Topics in microevolution: population genetics, natural selection, genetic variation, and adaptation. Macroevolution: speciation, extinction, phylogeny, and major evolutionary patterns.

(Cross-listed with BCBIO, GEN). (3-0) Cr. 3. F.

Prereq: BIOL 212
Genome sequencing, assembly, structural and functional annotation, and comparative genomics. Investigating these topics will develop skills in programming and scripting (Perl and/or Python), the use of biological databases, sequence alignment, similarity search, identification of sequence patterns, construction of phylogenetic trees, and comparative genomics.

Cr. 3. F.

Prereq: BIOL 212
Survey of molecular, genetic, and cellular aspects of human diseases. Fundamental concepts of cell biology and how they are linked to the pathologies of different classes of human diseases. Recent scientific advances with an emphasis on new methods of diagnosis and treatment.

(3-0) Cr. 3. S.

Prereq: BIOL 211, BIOL 212
Introduction to physiology of metabolic function in mammals and other animals. Metabolic processes and their interactions with various subsystems, approached from an organismal perspective. Integration of cellular, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal processes, relevant to their control and integration at the nervous and endocrine system levels. Functional aspects of organismal physiology, energy and water balances, physiology of rest exercise, and environmental stress. Students cannot receive credit for both BIOL 334 and BIOL 335.

(3-3) Cr. 4. F.

Prereq: BIOL 314
Introduction to systemic functions with emphasis on mammals. Students cannot receive credit for both BIOL 334 and BIOL 335.

Cr. 3.

Prereq: BIOL 211, BIOL 212
Study of mechanisms by which animals perform life-sustaining functions; the evolution and adaptive significance of physiology traits, the diversity of physiological mechanisms, and how physiology and ecology interact.

(Cross-listed with W S). (3-0) Cr. 3. Alt. S., offered even-numbered years.

Prereq: BIOL 212
Biology of human reproduction, including reproductive systems, hormones, and endocrinology of pregnancy, presented from a clinically-oriented perspective. Reviews health-related conditions such as infertility, sexually-transmitted diseases, and complicated pregnancy.

(Cross-listed with GEN). (2-2) Cr. 3. S.

Prereq: GEN 313 or GEN 320
Analysis of genome, RNA, and protein data using computer technology to answer biological questions on topics ranging from microbial diversity to human health. An introduction for students in the life sciences to the fields of genomics, bioinformatics and systems.

(3-0) Cr. 3. F.

Prereq: Credit in BIOL 211 and BIOL 212
Comprehensive survey of human anatomy, emphasizing structural and functional relationships of major organ systems. Compartmental study of normal anatomy; practical clinical application of anatomical regions.

(3-4) Cr. 5. S.

Prereq: BIOL 212, junior classification
The evolution of chordates as reflected in the anatomy of extinct and living forms. Lecture topics include the history and diversity of chordates, comparisons of anatomic structures among major groups, and the adaptive significance of anatomic structures. Laboratory involves dissection of representative species.

(3-3) Cr. 4. S.

Prereq: BIOL 212
Microscopic structure of vertebrate tissues and organs, with an introduction to histological techniques.

(Cross-listed with MICRO, V PTH). (3-0) Cr. 3. S.

Prereq: BIOL 212
Biology and host-parasite relationships of major groups of animal parasites, and techniques of diagnosing and studying parasites.

(3-0) Cr. 3. F.

Prereq: BIOL 212
Ethological and sociobiological approaches to animal behavior. Genetic and developmental aspects of behavior, biological rhythms, orientation (including navigation, migration), communication, and social behavior (mating, aggression, parental care).

(0-3) Cr. 1. F.

Prereq: Credit or enrollment in BIOL 354
Laboratory techniques for observation, description and analysis of animal activities; independent projects.

(3-0) Cr. 3. S.

Prereq: Credit in BIOL 211 and BIOL 211L
Uses of plants and fungi by humans and the importance of plants in the past, present, and future. Discussion of fruits, vegetables, grains, herbs, spices, beverages, oils, fibers, wood, medicines, and drugs, in the context of their agricultural, cultural, and economic roles in modern societies. Emphasis on origins and worldwide diversity of culturally important plants, their characteristics, and uses.

(Cross-listed with FOR). (2-4) Cr. 4. F.

Prereq: BIOL 211
Identification and ecology of North American woody plant species. Importance of woody plants in timber production and wildlife habitat. Natural disturbances, human impacts, management and restoration concerns for major North American forest regions will be addressed.

Cr. 3-4. F.

Prereq: BIOL 211, 212
Emphasis on diversity, development, physiology, and behavior of invertebrate organisms- the "spineless wonders" of the world. Laboratory involves hands-on study and investigation of living invertebrates.

(Cross-listed with A ECL). (3-2) Cr. 4. F.

Prereq: BIOL 211, BIOL 211L, BIOL 212, BIOL 212L
Evolution, biology, and classification of fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Emphasis on a comparative analysis of the structure and function of organ systems. Laboratory exercises concentrate on morphology and identification of orders of vertebrates.

(2-4) Cr. 4. S.

Prereq: BIOL 211
Introduction to plant phylogenetic systematics, plant classification, survey of flowering plant families, and identification and field study of local plants.

(Cross-listed with ENSCI). Cr. 1-6. Repeatable. F.S.

Prereq: Six credits in biological and /or physical sciences, and permission of instructor.
Introduction to geographic information systems (GIS) with emphasis on ecological and environmental applications. No prior GIS experience required. Guided, individualized study of topics based on student background and interest. For students with prior experience, topics and activities are selected to build upon any previous experience and minimize duplication to previous GIS coursework. Potential topics include: basic concepts of GIS, data structures, database management, spatial analysis, modeling and visualization of ecological and environmental data. Case studies in ecological and environmental applications using ArcGIS. Offered on a satisfactory-fail basis only.

(Cross-listed with A ECL). (2-3) Cr. 3. S.

Prereq: A ECL 312; STAT 101 or STAT 104
Quantitative techniques used in management of natural resources with emphasis on inventory and manipulation of habitat and animal populations.

(Dual-listed with EEOB 581). (Cross-listed with ENSCI, ENV S, MICRO). Cr. 3-4. F.

Prereq: 12 credits of natural science including biology and chemistry
Introduction to the structure and function of natural environmental systems. Emphasis on the analysis of material and energy flows in natural environmental systems and the primary environmental factors controlling these systems.

(Dual-listed with EEOB 582). (Cross-listed with ENSCI). (2-2) Cr. 3. S.

Prereq: ENSCI 381
Continuation of ENSCI 381. Systems approach to the analysis of material and energy flows in natural environmental systems and the primary environmental factors controlling these systems.

Cr. 1-4. Repeatable.

Prereq: Two courses in the biological sciences and by approval of application
Extended field trips, usually during break periods, to North American locations of interest to biologists. Inquire in the Biology Program Office, 103 Bessey Hall, for trip schedule.

(1-0) Cr. 1. Repeatable.

Prereq: Two courses in the biological sciences and by approval of application
Discussion of relevant biological and cultural topics during semester preceding extended field trips to North American locations of interest to biologists.

Cr. 1-3. Repeatable.

Prereq: Two courses in the biological sciences and by approval of application
Extended field trip under supervision of faculty member, usually during break periods, to North American locations of interest to biologists. Inquire in the Biology Program Office, 103 Bessey Hall, for trip schedule. Report required.

Cr. 1-4. Repeatable.

Prereq: Two courses in the biological sciences and by approval of application
Extended field trips, usually during break periods, to international locations of interest to biologists. Inquire in the Biology Program Office, 103 Bessey Hall, for trip schedule.
Meets International Perspectives Requirement.

(1-0) Cr. 1. Repeatable.

Prereq: Two courses in the biological sciences and by approval of application
Discussion of relevant biological and cultural topics during semester preceding extended field trip to international locations of interest to biologists.
Meets International Perspectives Requirement.

Cr. 1-3. Repeatable.

Prereq: Two courses in the biological sciences and by approval of application
Extended field trips, under supervision of faculty member, usually during break periods, to international locations of interest to biologists. Inquire in the Biology Program Office, 103 Bessey Hall, for trip schedule.
Meets International Perspectives Requirement.

(Cross-listed with V PTH). (3-0) Cr. 3. S.

Prereq: BIOL 211 and BIOL 212 with labs
Introductory exploration of pathology as a medical discipline. This includes study of disease mechanisms via an introduction to general pathology topics (cell degeneration, necrosis, disturbances of growth, disturbances of blood flow, inflammation, neoplasia) and organ system-specific response to injury.

(Dual-listed with EEOB 514). (3-0) Cr. 3. F.

Prereq: BIOL 315 or equivalent recommended.
Evolution of ecological adaptations at the individual, population, and species level. Emphasis is on evolutionary mechanisms and adaptive strategies related to life histories and reproduction; age and size at maturity; lifespan and senescense; offspring size/number trade-offs; sex and mating systems; sex determination and sex ratios.

(3-0) Cr. 3. S.

Prereq: BIOL 313
Principles of embryogenesis and animal development. Establishment of body axes, organ and limb development, and specification of cell fates. Emphasis on cell signaling and the control of gene expression within the context of a developing organism. Medically relevant subjects will be discussed, including stem cells, cancer biology, fertilization, and cloning.

(0-3) Cr. 1. S.

Prereq: Credit or enrollment in BIOL 423 or permission of the instructor.
Experiments and explorations illustrating fundamental principles of multicellular development.

(3-0) Cr. 3. S.

Prereq: BIOL 314
Selected topics on biological structure and function at the cellular level. Emphasis on dynamic nature and regulation of cellular organization and the integration of cellular processes (systems biology). Original research articles will demonstrate interdisciplinary research strategies and how scientific investigation leads to knowledge and understanding of cell biology.

(3-0) Cr. 3.

Prereq: BIOL 313 or GEN 320; BIOL 314 or BBMB 301; CHEM 231 or CHEM 332; PHYS 106, PHYS 115, or PHYS 111
An overview of classical and current concepts, principles, and approaches regarding the basic mechanisms of plant function underlying growth, development, and survival of plants. Topics covered include environmental and developmental signals, plant hormone action, signal transduction, mineral nutrition, water relations, metabolism, and photosynthesis.

(Dual-listed with EEOB 534). (3-0) Cr. 3. S.

Prereq: BIOL 211, BIOL 212
Chemical integration of vertebrate organisms. The structure, development, and evolution of the endocrine glands and the function and structure of their hormones.

(3-0) Cr. 3. F.

Prereq: BIOL 212
Basic principles of brain function and development. Signaling of nerve cells, synaptic transmission, structure/function of ion channels and receptors, memory and synaptic plasticity, movement and central control, sensation and sensory processing, construction of neural circuits, early brain development, complex brain functions in health and disease.

(Dual-listed with EEOB 539). Cr. 3-4. Alt. S., offered even-numbered years.

Prereq: BIOL 335; physics recommended
Physiological adaptations to the environment with an emphasis on vertebrates.

(Cross-listed with BCB, BCBIO, COM S, CPR E, GEN). (4-0) Cr. 4. F.

Prereq: MATH 165 or STAT 401 or equivalent.
Broad overview of bioinformatics with a significant problem-solving component, including hands-on practice using computational tools to solve a variety of biological problems. Topics include: bioinformatic data processing, Perl programming, genome assembly, database search, sequence alignment, gene prediction, next-generation sequencing, comparative and functional genomics, and systems biology.

(Dual-listed with EEOB 551). (3-3) Cr. 4. F.

Prereq: BIOL 315 or equivalent.
Survey of land plant evolution; phylogenetic comparison of anatomical, reproductive, and life history specializations. Relationships among bryophytes, lycophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms, and angiosperms emphasizing significant evolutionary changes documented by paleobotanical, morphological, and molecular studies.

(3-3) Cr. 4. F.

Prereq: BIOL 212L; BIOL 366 recommended
Characteristics of cell and tissue types in vascular plants. Anatomy of developing and mature stems, roots, and leaves, including secondary (woody) growth. Introduction to the special anatomy of flowers and seeds.

(Dual-listed with EEOB 555). Cr. 3.

Prereq: BIOL 211, BIOL 211L
Introduction to the biology and ecology of mosses, liverworts, and lichens. Emphasis on identification and diversity of local representatives of these three groups of organisms. Required field trips and service-learning.

(Cross-listed with MICRO). (2-3) Cr. 3. F.

Prereq: 10 credits in biological sciences
Morphology, diversity and ecology of fungi; their relation to agriculture and industry and human health.

(Cross-listed with A ECL). (2-0) Cr. 2. F.

Prereq: BIOL 351 or BIOL 365
Biology, ecology, and evolution of amphibians (salamanders, frogs, caecilians) and reptiles (lizards, snakes, tuatara, turtles, crocodilians). Emphasis on structure, physiological adaptation to different environments, behavior, reproduction, roles of amphibians and reptiles in ecosystems, and conservation. Laboratory focus on survey methods, identification, relationships, distribution, habits, and habitats of amphibians and reptiles.

(Cross-listed with A ECL). (0-3) Cr. 1. F.

Prereq: BIOL 351 or BIOL/A ECL 365; concurrent registration in BIOL 457 or A ECL 457
Laboratory to accompany Biology/Animal Ecology 457. Focus on survey methods, identification, relationships, distribution, habits, and habitats of amphibians and reptiles.

(Cross-listed with A ECL). (2-0) Cr. 2. S.

Prereq: A ECL 365 or BIOL 351
Biology, evolution, ecology and taxonomy of birds. Emphasis on structure, physiology, behavior, communication, navigation, reproduction, and conservation.

(Cross-listed with A ECL). (0-3) Cr. 1. S.

Prereq: BIOL 351 or AECL/BIOL 365. Concurrent enrollment in AECL/BIOL 458 is required.
Laboratory complements lecture topics with emphasis on external anatomy, identification and distribution of Midwest birds, and field trips.

(Dual-listed with EEOB 559). (Cross-listed with A ECL). (2-0) Cr. 2. S.

Prereq: BIOL 351 or A ECL 365
Biology, ecology, and evolution of mammals. Emphasis on structure, physiological adaptation to different environments, behavior, reproduction, roles of mammals in ecosystems, and conservation.

(Cross-listed with A ECL). (0-3) Cr. 1. S.

Prereq: BIOL 351 or BIOL/AECL 365; concurrent enrollment in AECL 459 or BIOL 459 required.
Laboratory focus on identification, survey methods, distribution, habits, and habitats of mammals. Several field trips.

(Cross-listed with GEN). (3-0) Cr. 3. F.

Prereq: BIOL 315
The genetic basis of evolutionary processes in higher organisms. The role of genetic variation in adaptation, natural selection, adaptive processes, and the influence of random processes on evolutionary change.

(Dual-listed with EEOB 564). (Cross-listed with ENSCI). (3-0) Cr. 3. S.

Prereq: 15 credits in biological sciences.
Ecology, classification, creation and restoration, and management of wetlands. Emphasis on North American temperate wetlands.

Cr. 3.

Prereq: BIOL 312
Examination of conservation issues from a population and community perspective. The role of genetics, demography, and environment in determining population viability, habitat fragmentation, reserve design, biodiversity assessment, and restoration ecology.

(3-0) Cr. 3. S.

Prereq: BIOL 312
The effect of interspecific interactions on the structure and dynamics of natural and managed communities; including concepts of guild structure and trophic web dynamics and their importance to the productivity, diversity, stability, and sustainability of communities. The implications of interspecifc interactions in the management of wild species will be emphasized with illustrative case histories of interactions between plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates.

(3-0) Cr. 3. S.

Prereq: BIOL 312
Principles of plant population and community ecology.

(Dual-listed with EEOB 576). (3-0) Cr. 3. Alt. S., offered odd-numbered years.

Prereq: BIOL 312
The nature of adaptations to physical and biotic environments. Biophysical, biomechanical, and physiological bases of the structure, form, growth, distribution, and abundance of organisms.

Cr. 1-8. Repeatable.


Courses taken at Gulf Coast Research Laboratory and other marine biological stations are transferred to Iowa State University under this number.

Cr. 1-8. Repeatable.


Courses taken at summer biological field stations are transferred to Iowa State University under this number. See www.biology.iastate.edu for links to field stations located in different biomes: coastal, Great Lakes, taiga, deciduous forests, deserts, Rocky Mountains.

Cr. 1-4. Repeatable, maximum of 8 credits.

Prereq: One year of college biology; knowledge of Spanish desirable but not required
Students registering for courses taught by the Organization for Tropical Studies will receive credit for this ISU course when requesting a transfer of credits.

(Cross-listed with ENSCI). (3-0) Cr. 3. Alt. S., offered odd-numbered years.

Prereq: Combined 12 credits in biology, chemistry, and physics.
Introduction of the study of ecosystems and the biological and physical factors that influence their properties and dynamics. Conceptual foundations for ecosystem studies. Interactions among organisms, biological diversity, and ecosystem attributes. Quantitative analyses of accumulations, transformations, and fluxes of nutrients, water, and energy within and among ecosystems. Global change issues.

(Dual-listed with EEOB 586). (Cross-listed with A ECL, ENSCI). (3-0) Cr. 3. F.

Prereq: BIOL 312 or ENSCI 381 or ENSCI 402 or NREM 301
Structure and function of aquatic ecosystems with application to fishery and pollution problems. Emphasis on lacustrine, riverine, and wetland ecology.

(Dual-listed with EEOB 586L). (Cross-listed with A ECL, ENSCI). (0-3) Cr. 1. F.

Prereq: Concurrent enrollment in BIOL 486
Field trips and laboratory exercises to accompany 486. Hands-on experience with aquatic research and monitoring techniques and concepts.

(Dual-listed with EEOB 587). (Cross-listed with ENSCI, MICRO). (3-0) Cr. 3. F.

Prereq: Six credits in biology and 6 credits in chemistry
Introduction to major functional groups of autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms and their roles in natural systems.

(0-3) Cr. 1. F.S.


On-line taxonomic and identification exercises to accompany 486. Instruction and practice in the identification of algae, aquatic macrophytes, zooplankton, and benthos.

(Dual-listed with EEOB 589). (Cross-listed with A ECL). (2-2) Cr. 3. F.

Prereq: BIOL 312, STAT 101 or STAT 104, a course in calculus, or graduate standing
Concepts and theories of population dynamics with emphasis on models of growth, predation, competition, and regulation.

Cr. 1. Repeatable, maximum of 9 credits. F.S.SS.

Prereq: Permission of instructor.
Independent study opportunities for undergraduate students in the biological sciences. No more than 9 credits in Biol 490 may be counted toward graduation and, of those, only 2 credits may be applied toward the Biology advanced course requirement.

Cr. 1-2. Repeatable.

Prereq: Permission of supervising staff
For students registering to be undergraduate teaching assistants. Offered on a satisfactory-fail basis only. A maximum of 2 credits of BIOL 491 may be applied toward the Biology advanced course requirement.

(1-0) Cr. 1. F.

Prereq: For life science majors; Minimum requirement: sophomore standing.
For students considering pursuing a graduate degree in the biological sciences. Professional development topics including the defining of academic and career areas of interest, finding and evaluating appropriate programs of graduate study, the graduate school application process, and developing a curriculum vita. Exploration of learning opportunities at field stations, research internships, and independent research activities.

Cr. 1-3. Repeatable. F.S.SS.

Prereq: 8 credits in biology and permission of instructor
Professional experiences in biological sciences. Intended for Biology majors. No more than 9 credits in BIOL 494 may be counted toward graduation and, of those, only 6 credits may be applied toward the Biology advanced course requirement.

Cr. 1-3. Repeatable. F.S.

Prereq: Permission of instructor
Content varies from year to year and may include detailed discussion of special topics in biology, current issues in biology, or careers in biology.

Cr. R. Repeatable. F.S.SS.

Prereq: Permission of the Biology Program cooperative education coordinator
Required of all cooperative education students. Students must register for this course prior to commencing each work period.

Cr. 1-3. Repeatable, maximum of 9 credits. F.S.SS.

Prereq: Permission of instructor.
Research opportunities for undergraduate students in the biological sciences. Intended for Biology majors. No more than 9 credits in Biol 499 may be counted toward graduation and, of those, only 6 credits may be applied toward the Biology advanced course requirement.