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Biochemistry and Biophysics

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The department of Biochemistry, Biophysics & Molecular Biology offers majors in biochemistry or biophysics in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences and a major in agricultural biochemistry in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences.

Biochemists and biophysicists seek to understand life processes in terms of chemical and physical principles. They conduct research in the frontiers of biology such as metabolic networking; structure and function of enzymes, membranes, and hormones; computational approaches; genomic and proteomic technology; protein engineering; plant biotechnology; muscle structure and function; and the design and evaluation of drugs for the treatment of disease. Biochemistry, biophysics and molecular biology provide the basis for much of modern biotechnology. Graduates have opportunities in industry, especially the biotechnology sector, in universities, veterinary and medical schools, and government laboratories. Students who meet the necessary high scholastic standards have the opportunity to continue their education to pursue advanced degrees in graduate school, medicine, pharmacy or veterinary medicine.

Graduates of biochemistry, agricultural biochemistry and biophysics understand the chemical principles of biological systems including molecular biology. They have developed laboratory expertise in modern biochemical techniques, including the ability to analyze data and prepare scientific reports. Most have participated in undergraduate research and have developed the skills necessary for both written and oral presentations at a level that will serve the student both within the university and in postgraduate professional life. Graduates have the experience of interacting with persons of different disciplines and cultures. Students have the training in biological and physical science and mathematics to solve problems of broad scope in biological, biomedical and environmental sciences and to provide leadership in diverse scientific and technological arenas.

A program that combines a bachelor of science and masters of science in biochemistry or biophysics is offered.

Biochemistry or Biophysics Majors in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences

For the undergraduate curriculum leading to the degree bachelor of science, see College of Agriculture, Agricultural biochemistry.

Biochemistry and biophysics are recommended to students whose career interests involve advanced graduate or medical study or employment in biochemistry or biophysics, or in related areas of the biological or medical sciences.

Biochemistry undergraduate major program of study 

Total Degree Requirement:  120 cr.

BBMB 101Introduction to Biochemistry1
BBMB 102Introduction to Biochemistry Laboratory1
BBMB 201Chemical Principles in Biological Systems2
BBMB 404Biochemistry I3
or (4 credits)
Amino Acids and Proteins
Bioenergetics and Metabolism
BBMB 405Biochemistry II3
or (4 credits)
Membrane Biochemistry
Biochemistry of Nucleic Acids
BBMB 411Techniques in Biochemical Research4
BBMB 461Molecular Biophysics2
or BBMB 561 Molecular Biophysics
BBMB 561LLaboratory in Molecular Biophysics2-3
or CHEM 322L Laboratory in Physical Chemistry
BBMB 490Independent Study (Not required)1-3
BBMB 499Undergraduate Research (Not required but strongly encouraged)1-5
Take one of the following:5-7
Advanced General Chemistry
General Chemistry I
and General Chemistry II
Take one of the following:
Laboratory in Advanced General Chemistry
Laboratory in General Chemistry I
Laboratory in General Chemistry I
CHEM 211
211L
Quantitative and Environmental Analysis
and Quantitative and Environmental Analysis Laboratory
4
CHEM 324Introductory Quantum Mechanics3
CHEM 325Chemical Thermodynamics3
CHEM 331
CHEM 332
Organic Chemistry I
and Organic Chemistry II
6
CHEM 333LLaboratory in Organic Chemistry I (for Chemistry and Biochemistry Majors)1-2
or CHEM 331L Laboratory in Organic Chemistry I
CHEM 334LLaboratory in Organic Chemistry II (for Chemistry and Biochemistry Majors)1-2
or CHEM 332L Laboratory in Organic Chemistry II
MATH 165Calculus I4
MATH 166Calculus II4
MATH 265Calculus III3-4
or MATH 266 Elementary Differential Equations
or MATH 267 Elementary Differential Equations and Laplace Transforms
PHYS 221
PHYS 222
Introduction to Classical Physics I
and Introduction to Classical Physics II
10
BIOL 211
BIOL 212
Principles of Biology I
and Principles of Biology II
6
BIOL 211LPrinciples of Biology Laboratory I1
or BIOL 212L Principles of Biology Laboratory II
or BIOL 313L Genetics Laboratory
BIOL 313Principles of Genetics3
BIOL 314Principles of Molecular Cell Biology3
Biological Science electives from Biochemistry, Biology, Chemistry, Genetics, Microbiology4
Total Credits81-93

Communication Proficiency: A grade of C or better is required in ENGL 250. For students fulfilling the upper-level requirement with BBMB 411, a grade of 80% or better must be earned on two journal-style written reports. 

LIB 160Information Literacy1
ENGL 150Critical Thinking and Communication3
ENGL 250Written, Oral, Visual, and Electronic Composition3
One course from the following:
BBMB 411Techniques in Biochemical Research4
ENGL 305Creative Writing: Nonfiction3
ENGL 309Proposal and Report Writing3
ENGL 314Technical Communication3

General Education Area

Arts and Humanities 12
Social Sciences 9
International Perspectives3
U.S. Diversity3

 Biophysics undergraduate major program of study

Total Degree Requirement: 120 cr,

BBMB 101Introduction to Biochemistry1
BBMB 102Introduction to Biochemistry Laboratory1
BBMB 201Chemical Principles in Biological Systems2
BBMB 404Biochemistry I3
or BBMB 420 Mammalian Biochemistry
BBMB 411Techniques in Biochemical Research4
BBMB 461Molecular Biophysics2
or BBMB 561 Molecular Biophysics
BBMB 561LLaboratory in Molecular Biophysics2-3
or CHEM 322L Laboratory in Physical Chemistry
Take one of the following:5-7
Advanced General Chemistry
General Chemistry I
and General Chemistry II
CHEM 201LLaboratory in Advanced General Chemistry1
or CHEM 177N Laboratory in General Chemistry I
or CHEM 177L Laboratory in General Chemistry I
CHEM 211
211L
Quantitative and Environmental Analysis
and Quantitative and Environmental Analysis Laboratory
4
CHEM 324Introductory Quantum Mechanics3
CHEM 325Chemical Thermodynamics3
CHEM 331
CHEM 332
Organic Chemistry I
and Organic Chemistry II
6
MATH 165Calculus I4
MATH 166Calculus II4
MATH 265Calculus III4
MATH 266Elementary Differential Equations3
MATH 207Matrices and Linear Algebra3
or MATH 317 Theory of Linear Algebra
PHYS 221
PHYS 222
Introduction to Classical Physics I
and Introduction to Classical Physics II
10
One course from the following:
Numerical Methods for Differential Equations
Methods of Multivariate Analysis
Empirical Methods for the Computational Sciences
COM S 207Fundamentals of Computer Programming3
STAT 305Engineering Statistics3-4
or STAT 231 Probability and Statistical Inference for Engineers
BIOL 211
BIOL 212
Principles of Biology I
and Principles of Biology II
6
BIOL 211LPrinciples of Biology Laboratory I1
or BIOL 212L Principles of Biology Laboratory II
Additional 300+ or higher level courses in biochemistry, biophysics, biological sciences, chemistry or physics.7
Total Credits85-89

Communication Proficiency: A grade of C or better is required in ENGL 250. For students fulfilling the upper-level requirement with BBMB 411, a grade of 80% or better must be earned on two journal-style written reports. 

LIB 160Information Literacy1
ENGL 150Critical Thinking and Communication3
ENGL 250Written, Oral, Visual, and Electronic Composition3
One course from the following:
BBMB 411Techniques in Biochemical Research4
ENGL 305Creative Writing: Nonfiction3
ENGL 309Proposal and Report Writing3
ENGL 314Technical Communication3

General Education Area

Arts and Humanities12
Social Sciences9
U.S. Diversity3
International Perspectives3

Biochemistry minor is offered in both the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences and Agriculture and Life Sciences

BBMB 404Biochemistry I3
BBMB 405Biochemistry II3
BBMB 411Techniques in Biochemical Research4
One course from the following:2-3
Molecular Biophysics (2 crs)
Molecular Biophysics (2 crs)
Chemical Thermodynamics
300+ level courses in BBMB or CHEM to 15 cr total3-4
Total Credits15-17

These lists of courses should not be regarded as statements of fixed requirements or as complete outlines of the work necessary for the major. They are given solely for the convenience of students or advisers who wish to estimate the amount of basic study that may be needed.

See also the B.S./M.S. program under Graduate Study.

Biochemistry, B.S.

Freshman
FallCreditsSpringCredits
BBMB 1011BBMB 1021
CHEM 201*5CHEM 2112
CHEM 201L*1CHEM 211L2
MATH 165**4MATH 1664
ENGL 1503BIOL 2113
LIB 16011BIOL 211L31
 LAS General Education requirement23
 15 16
Sophomore
FallCreditsSpringCredits
CHEM 3313BBMB 2012
CHEM 331L or 333L1-2CHEM 3323
MATH 265 or 2663-4CHEM 332L or 334L1-2
BIOL 2123PHYS 2225
PHYS 2215ENGL 25013
 15-17 14-15
Junior
FallCreditsSpringCredits
BBMB 40443BBMB 40543
BIOL 3133BIOL 3143
LAS General Education Requirement23LAS General Education Requirement23
LAS General Education Requirement23LAS General Education Requirement23
LAS World Language Requirement84LAS World Language Requirement84
 16 16
Senior
FallCreditsSpringCredits
BBMB 41114BBMB 4612
CHEM 3243Biological Science Elective64
LAS General Education Requirement23CHEM 3253
LAS General Education Requirement23BBMB 561L72
BBMB 4995varBBMB 4995var
 13 11
Total Credits: 116-119
*

General Chemistry I and II (177, 177N or 177L and 178) are acceptable substitutes for CHEM 201 and 201L.

**

ALEKS assessment determines math placement.

1

 Communication Proficiency: A grade of C or better is required in ENGL 250. For students fulfilling the upper-level requirement with BBMB 411, a grade of 80% or better must be earned on two journal-style written reports. 

2

Liberal Arts and Sciences (LAS) General Education requirements include:

12cr.  Arts and Humanities, 9 cr. Social Sciences and 11 cr. Natural Sciences (8 cr.) and Math (3 cr.).
Students in all ISU majors must complete a 3 cr. course in U.S. Diversity and a 3 cr. course in International Perspectives.  Discuss with your adviser how the two courses you select can be applied to address general education requirements.   Check for a list of approved courses at: http://www.registrar.iastate.edu/students/div-ip-guide

3

One Biology laboratory course is required.  Choose Biol 211L, 212L or 313L.

4

Students have the option of choosing the senior level biochemistry sequence for 6 credits (BBMB 404  and BBMB 405) or the graduate-level biochemistry sequence for 8 credits (BBMB 504, 505 and BBMB 506, 507).

5

Undergraduate study or research, BBMB 490 or 499, is recommended but not required.  Credit value is variable.

6

Four credits of electives in Biological Sciences are required.

7

CHEM322L may be taken as a substitute for BBMB 561L.

8

 World Language Requirement

Biophysics, B.S.

Freshman
FallCreditsSpringCredits
BBMB 1011BBMB 1021
CHEM 201*5CHEM 2112
or CHEM 177 and CHEM 178
 CHEM 211L2
CHEM 201L or 177L*1MATH 1664
MATH 165**4BIOL 2113
ENGL 1503BIOL 211L31
LIB 16011COM S 2073
 15 16
Sophomore
FallCreditsSpringCredits
CHEM 3313BBMB 2012
MATH 2654CHEM 3323
BIOL 2123MATH 2663
PHYS 2215PHYS 2225
 ENGL 25013
 15 16
Junior
FallCreditsSpringCredits
BBMB 40443CHEM 3253
CHEM 3243BBMB 4612
LAS World Language Requirement84BBMB 561L72
Science Elective 63MATH 3174
 LAS General Education Requirement23
 LAS World Language Requirement84
 13 18
Senior
FallCreditsSpringCredits
BBMB 41114Science Elective3 
Science Elective 300+53LAS General Educaton Requirement23
LAS General Education Requirement23LAS General Educaton Requirement23
STAT 231 or 3054LAS General Education Requirement23
LAS General Education Requirement23BBMB 4995var
BBMB 499 or 4905var 
 17 9
Total Credits: 119
*

General Chemistry I and II (177, 177n or 177l and 178) are acceptable substitutes for CHEM 201 and 201L.

**

ALEKS assessment determines math placement.

1

Communication Proficiency: A grade of C or better is required in ENGL 250. For students fulfilling the upper-level requirement with BBMB 411, a grade of 80% or better must be earned on two journal-style written reports. 

2

Liberal Arts and Sciences (LAS) General Education Requirements include a minimum of: 12 cr. Arts and Humanities, 9 cr. Social Sciences and 11 cr Natural Sciences (8 cr.) and Math (3 cr.)

Students in all ISU majors must complete a 3-cr. course in U.S. Diversity and a 3-cr. course in International Perspectives. Discuss with your adviser how the two courses you select can be applied to address general education requirements. Check for a list of approved courses at: http://www.registrar.iastate.edu/courses/div-ip-guide.html

3

 One Biology laboratory course is required. Choose BIOL 211L or 212L.

4

Students have the option of choosing BBMB 405 or BBMB 420.

5

Undergraduate study or research, BBMB 490 or 499, is recommended but not required. Credit value is variable.

6

Seven additional science elective credits 300+; biochemistry, biophysics, biological sciences, chemistry or physics.

7

CHEM 322L can substitute for BBMB 561L.

8

World Language Requirement: 

Graduate Study

Introduction

Biochemistry and Biophysics are the science and technology used to understand the mechanisms underlying biological processes at the molecular level, with an emphasis on the fundamental relationships among the chemical, physical, and biological sciences. The Roy J. Carver Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Molecular Biology (BBMB) administers Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Master’s (M.S.), and Graduate Certificate programs that lead to an advanced degree or certificate in these disciplines.  The prerequisite to graduate study is a sound undergraduate background in biology, chemistry, mathematics, and physics.

BBMB offers Doctor of Philosophy and Master’s degrees in Biochemistry and in Biophysics that are designed to train students to independently conceive and carry out original research. BBMB also offers two graduate certificate programs in Biochemistry that provide a mechanism for formal recognition of focused graduate study in a specialized area that is less comprehensive than that required for a master's degree. BBMB participates in the Interdepartmental majors of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology; Genetics and Genomics; Immunobiology; Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology; Neuroscience; Plant Biology; and Toxicology.  All graduate degree students in BBMB are required to teach as part of their training.

Graduate Degree Programs

Concurrent Bachelor’s (B.S.)/ Master’s (M.S.) Degree

The department offers a concurrent enrollment degree program in either Biochemistry or Biophysics that allows ISU undergraduate students to obtain both the B.S. and M.S. degrees in about five years. The program is open to undergraduate students in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences and in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences.  The concurrent degrees can be useful to students entering various career tracks. For those considering careers as research specialists, entry positions with higher-level responsibilities, and a higher-level salary, are made possible with the M.S. degree. For those considering careers as research directors, which require advanced study, the M.S. degree provides an advantage for admission into Ph.D. programs at the most competitive and prestigious graduate schools. Similarly, the M.S. degree can be a competitive advantage for admission in to medical, dental, law, veterinary medicine, or other professional schools.

Application to the program is made near the end of the junior undergraduate (third) year.  Concurrent B.S/M.S. degree students begin research for the M.S. thesis during the summer semester after their junior year and are eligible for research assistantships, which are renewable based on academic standing and satisfactory research performance. The M.S. thesis requires intensive experience in original, independent laboratory research under the close supervision of a faculty mentor. To apply, see the concurrent B.S./M.S. application instructions found on the department’s Graduate Study web page.

Master’s (M.S.) Degree

The M.S. degree programs in Biochemistry and in Biophysics are useful for students who prefer to undertake research training without the longer-term commitment required for the Ph.D. degree.  It is also useful for students interested more in the technical aspects of research rather than in careers as research directors.  The program requires about 3 years on average to complete and the successful defense of an independent research dissertation is required.  About half the time required to earn the degree is spent on advanced coursework and professional seminars, and the other half is devoted to research undertaken in the laboratory under the close supervision of a faculty mentor.  Financial support is available.  To apply, applicants first submit the free BBMB online application found on the department website, which is used as a screening tool.

NOTE: Students interested in a research career are encouraged to consider the Ph.D. track. Students may enter the Biochemistry or Biophysics M.S. degree program as a direct admit to a faculty research group at any time during the year.

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) Degree

The Ph.D. programs in Biochemistry and in Biophysics are designed to train students in the ability to independently conceive and carry out original research in the general area of the chemistry or physics of the processes of life.  The programs require about 5-6 years on average to complete and the successful defense of an independent research dissertation.  The majority of the time required to earn the degree is spent doing research on the dissertation project in the laboratory under the close supervision of a faculty mentor.  Considerable time also is devoted to advanced coursework and professional seminars. Financial support is available.  To apply, applicants first submit the free BBMB online application found on the department website, which is used as a screening tool. Students may enter the Biochemistry or Biophysics Ph.D. degree programs either as a rotation student in the fall semester or as a direct admit to a faculty research group at any time during the year.

Minor in Biochemistry

Graduate students in other M.S. and/or Ph.D. programs at ISU can earn a graduate minor in Biochemistry by completing 12 credits of the following courses with a grade point average of 3.0 or above: at least 6 credits from BBMB 504, 505, 506 and 507 and at least 6 credits of other BBMB 500- and 600-level courses.  A student wishing to declare a minor in Biochemistry should arrange for a member of the graduate faculty in Biochemistry to serve on the POS Committee and submit the required form found on the Graduate College Forms page.

Graduate Certificate Programs

The graduate certificate program is designed for students who wish to continue or expand their knowledge in Biochemistry at the graduate level without the time commitment or lab experience required for a formal Master’s or Ph.D. program. A certificate program can be an attractive option for individuals who have a bachelor’s degree and are interested in broadening their expertise, or who are working in the sciences or industry and want to continue their education at the graduate level. BBMB offers two graduate certificate programs in Biochemistry: a concurrent B.S. / Graduate Certificate and a Graduate Certificate.  The standards of admission and the course standards to which a certificate student are held are equivalent to those expected of a master's student. Each graduate certificate requires at least 12 graduate credits, all of which are available either on campus or on line. A graduate supervisor will be appointed to oversee the certification for each student.

If a person who completes a graduate certificate program decides to continue for a graduate degree in Biochemistry or Biophysics, program approval is required. Credits earned for the graduate certificate may be used to meet course requirements for the graduate degree program.

Concurrent B.S./Graduate Certificate

This B.S. /Graduate Certificate program is intended for exceptional undergraduate students majoring in Biochemistry. In this program, the student completes all of the requirements for the B.S. degree and the graduate certificate in a four-year period by combining the requirements of the two programs. The student enters the Graduate College after he/she achieves junior status and develops a plan of coursework (graduate and undergraduate) subject to the approval of the Director of Certificate (DOC). Required graduate courses are BBMB 504, 505, 506, 507, 561 and 561L. The student must satisfy the requirements of the B.S. in Biochemistry (121 credits) and the Graduate Certificate in Biochemistry (12 credits). Six credits of graduate coursework can satisfy some requirements of the B.S. degree. To apply for the B.S./Graduate Certificate, submit the application form found on the Graduate College Forms web page.

Graduate Certificate in Biochemistry

The graduate certificate in Biochemistry is designed for students who have a B.S. degree in Biochemistry or a related field and wish to advance their knowledge by taking additional coursework at the graduate level.  The graduate certificate courses may be taken either on-line or on campus.  Candidates for a graduate certificate in Biochemistry are admitted in the Graduate College. A total of 12 credits is required that include BBMB 504, 505, 506 and 507, plus four additional credits of BBMB coursework at the 500-level. The 12 credits earned in the graduate certificate program may be applied to meet the course requirements of a M.S. or Ph.D. program in Biochemistry at Iowa State University (ISU) if the student is accepted into one of these programs. To apply for the graduate certificate in Biochemistry, submit the ISU online application.

Expand all courses

Courses

Courses primarily for undergraduates:

(1-0) Cr. 1. F.


Research activities, career opportunities in biochemistry and biophysics, and an introduction to the structure of biologically important compounds. For students majoring in biochemistry, agricultural biochemistry or biophysics or considering one of these majors.

(0-2) Cr. 1. S.

Prereq: Credit or enrollment in CHEM 177 and CHEM 177L or CHEM 201 and CHEM 201L
Topics in the scientific background of biochemistry, such as macromolecules, metabolism, and catalysis. Laboratory experimentation covers biochemical concepts and the study of bio-molecules including proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. A significant component is practice in scientific communication. For students majoring in biochemistry, agricultural biochemistry or biophysics or considering one of these majors.

Cr. 1. F.

Prereq: Co-enrollment with BBMB 101 highly recommended.
Overview of the program of study, academic planning, resources on campus for the successful transition to Iowa State, team‐building, leadership, and community‐focused activities. For members of the Biochemistry & Biophysics Learning Community. Offered on a satisfactory-fail basis only.

Cr. 1. S.

Prereq: Enrollment in BBMB102 is highly recommended.
Overview of career-building and research resources within BBMB and across ISU, including internships, lab skills, independent research, and leadership opportunities. For members of the Biochemistry & Biophysics Learning Community. Offered on a satisfactory-fail basis only.

(Cross-listed with FS HN). (2-0) Cr. 2. F.


An introduction to the major classes of biomolecules, basic biochemical concepts, enzymology, metabolism and genetic engineering as they apply to the production and flavor of beer. All aspects of the biochemistry of beer will be covered, including the malting of barley, starch conversion, yeast fermentation and the chemical changes that occur during the aging of beer. Intended for non-majors. Natural science majors are limited to elective credit only.

Cr. 2. S.

Prereq: One year of high school chemistry or CHEM 50 and biology.
An introduction to how medicines treat disease, what drug molecules look like, how they function, how they can be toxic, modern therapeutics ranging from over-the-counter pain relievers, antibiotics and anti-depressants, to anti-cancer chemotherapies, a discussion of illegal drugs from toxicity to mechanism of action and potential therapeutic benefits. Intended for students of all majors.

(2-0) Cr. 2. S.

Prereq: Credit or enrollment in CHEM 332
Survey of chemical principles as they apply in biological systems including: water, organic chemistry of functional groups in biomolecules and biochemical cofactors, weak bonds and their contribution to biomolecular structure, oxidation-reduction reactions and redox potential, thermodynamic laws and bioenergetics, chemical equilibria and kinetics, inorganic chemistry in biological systems, data presentation. The subjects will be taught using molecules from biological systems as examples. Intended for majors in biochemistry, biophysics or agricultural biochemistry.

(3-0) Cr. 3. F.S.

Prereq: CHEM 163, CHEM 167, or CHEM 177
Fundamentals necessary for an understanding of biochemical processes. Primarily for students in agriculture. Not acceptable for credit toward a major in biochemistry, biophysics, or agricultural biochemistry. Credit for both BBMB 221 and Chem 231 may not be applied toward graduation.

(3-0) Cr. 3. S.SS.

Prereq: CHEM 231 or CHEM 331
A survey of biochemistry: structure and function of amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids; enzymology; metabolism; biosynthesis; and selected topics. Course offered online. Not acceptable for credit toward a major in biochemistry, biophysics, or agricultural biochemistry.

(3-0) Cr. 3. F.

Prereq: CHEM 231 or CHEM 331; BIOL 212; BIOL 313 and BIOL 314 strongly recommended.
Understanding biological systems at the molecular level; chemistry of biological macromolecules, enzyme function and regulation, metabolic pathways; integration of metabolism in diverse living systems. For students in biology and related majors who do not require the more rigorous treatment of biochemistry found in BBMB 404/405. Course offered online. Not acceptable for credit toward a major in biochemistry, biophysics, or agricultural biochemistry.

(3-0) Cr. 3. F.

Prereq: CHEM 332
A general overview for graduate and advanced undergraduate students in agricultural, biological, chemical and nutritional sciences. Chemistry of amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids, vitamins; protein structure; enzymology; carbohydrate metabolism. Course offered online. Credit for both BBMB 420 and the BBMB 404 - 405 sequence may not be applied toward graduation.

(3-0) Cr. 3. S.

Prereq: BBMB 404
A general overview for graduate and advanced undergraduate students in agricultural, biological, chemical, and nutritional sciences. Metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids, nucleotides and lipids; formation, turnover, and molecular relationships among DNA, RNA, and proteins; genetic code; regulation of gene expression; selected topics in the molecular physiology of plants and animals. Course available online. Credit for both BBMB 420 and the BBMB 404 - BBMB 405 sequence may not be applied toward graduation.

(2-8) Cr. 4. F.

Prereq: Credit or enrollment in BBMB 404 or BBMB 504 and BBMB 505; CHEM 211
Laboratory experimentation and techniques for studying biochemistry, including: chromatographic methods; electrophoresis; spectrophotometry; enzyme purification; enzyme kinetics; and characterization of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Scientific communication and technical writing are emphasized.

(3-0) Cr. 3. F.

Prereq: CHEM 332, BIOL 314
Structure and function of proteins; enzymology; biological oxidation; chemistry and metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids and nucleic acids; protein synthesis and the genetic code; relationship of biochemistry to selected animal diseases. Biochemistry of higher animals emphasized. Not acceptable for credit toward a major in agricultural biochemistry or biochemistry. Acceptable for credit toward a major in biophysics. Credit for both BBMB 420 and the BBMB 404 - 405 sequence may not be applied toward graduation.

(Dual-listed with BBMB 530). (Cross-listed with MICRO). (3-0) Cr. 3. Alt. S., offered odd-numbered years.

Prereq: MICRO 302, MICRO 302L
Survey of the diverse groups of procaryotes emphasizing important and distinguishing metabolic, phylogenetic, morphological, and ecological features of members of those groups.

(Cross-listed with MICRO). (2-6) Cr. 4. F.S.

Prereq: MICRO 302, MICRO 302L, CHEM 332, BIOL 313L
Fundamental techniques and theory for studying the cellular mechanisms, genetic processes and diversity of microbial life. Experimental techniques will include isolation and physiological characterization of bacteria that inhabit different environments as well as an emphasis on genetic and molecular techniques to understand antibiotic resistance processes and mechanisms. Also included are techniques for phylogenetic characterization, measuring gene expression, and genetic manipulation of bacteria. Essential components for the effective communication of scientific results are also emphasized.

(Dual-listed with BBMB 561). (2-0) Cr. 2. S.

Prereq: Credit or enrollment in MATH 166 and CHEM 178 and PHYS 222 or PHYS 112.
Physical methods for the study of molecular structure and organization of biological materials. X-ray diffraction, nuclear magnetic resonance, hydrodynamics and fluorescence spectroscopy. Registration for the graduate credit commits the student to graduate-level examinations, which differ from undergraduate-level examinations in the number and/or difficulty of questions.

Cr. 1-3. Repeatable. F.S.SS.

Prereq: College of Agriculture: junior or senior classification and permission of instructor; College of Liberal Arts and Sciences: permission of instructor.
Independent study with a faculty mentor. No more than 9 credits of BBMB 490 may count toward graduation.

Cr. 1-3. Repeatable. F.S.SS.

Prereq: College of Agriculture: junior or senior classification and permission of instructor; College of Liberal Arts and Sciences: permission of instructor
Independent study with a faculty mentor. No more than 9 credits of BBMB 490 may count toward graduation.

Cr. 1-5. Repeatable. F.S.SS.

Prereq: Permission of faculty member with whom student proposes to work.
Independent research under faculty guidance.

Courses primarily for graduate students, open to qualified undergraduates:

(2-0) Cr. 2. F.

Prereq: CHEM 332 or equivalent
Review of amino acids and proteins, including atomic interactions, thermodynamics, structure and properties of amino acids, post-translational modifications, protein expression, purification and analysis, protein secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure, protein folding, oxygen transport and hemoglobin, models for equilibrium binding, elementary reactions and enzyme kinetics, biosynthesis of amino acids: pathways and mechanisms.

(2-0) Cr. 2. F.

Prereq: CHEM 211, CHEM 332; a previous course in biochemistry is strongly recommended
Examination of catabolic pathways involved in the oxidation of organic and inorganic molecules, and energy metabolism involving inputs from light or other non-light sources. Central metabolism and glycolysis, fermentation, aerobic and anaerobic respiration, photosynthesis.

(2-0) Cr. 2.

Prereq: CHEM 332 or equivalent
Analysis of the structure, function, and synthesis of membranes. Bacterial and eukaryotic membrane characteristics. Membrane transport and signaling mechanisms. Analysis of the structure and function of lipids and membrane proteins.

(2-0) Cr. 2. S.

Prereq: CHEM 332 or equivalent
Analysis of the chemical structure, function, synthesis, and metabolism of nucleic acids. Chemical characterization of nucleotides, polynucleotides, DNA, and RNA. Analysis of transcription, translation, and the genetic code.

(2-0) Cr. 2. F.

Prereq: BIOL 313, BBMB 405, BBMB 502, BBMB 506 and 507 or GEN 409, or equivalent
Biochemical processes that define structure and function of nucleic acids. Emphasis on the molecular processes that take place during synthesis, processing, and function of different RNA species; review of recent advances in RNA research.

(Dual-listed with BBMB 430). (Cross-listed with MICRO). (3-0) Cr. 3. Alt. S., offered odd-numbered years.

Prereq: MICRO 302, MICRO 302L
Survey of the diverse groups of procaryotes emphasizing important and distinguishing metabolic, phylogenetic, morphological, and ecological features of members of those groups.

Cr. 2. Alt. S., offered odd-numbered years.

Prereq: BBMB 504
Advanced concepts of enzyme kinetics and catalysis. Experimental methods for determining kinetic and chemical reaction mechanisms. Enzyme structure/function relationships and the role of dynamics in catalysis.

(Cross-listed with B M S, EEOB, FS HN, GDCB, HORT, NREM, NUTRS, V MPM, VDPAM). Cr. 1. Repeatable. F.S.


Includes genetic engineering procedures, sequencing, PCR, and genotyping. Offered on a satisfactory-fail basis only.

(Cross-listed with B M S, EEOB, FS HN, GDCB, HORT, NREM, NUTRS, VDPAM). Cr. 1. Repeatable. S.SS.

Prereq: Graduate classification
Techniques. Includes: fermentation, protein isolation, protein purification, SDS-PAGE, Western blotting, NMR, confocal microscopy and laser microdissection, Immunophenotyping, and monoclonal antibody production. Sessions in basic molecular biology techniques and related procedures. Offered on a satisfactory-fail basis only.

(Cross-listed with B M S, EEOB, FS HN, GDCB, HORT, NREM, NUTRS, V MPM, VDPAM). Cr. 1. Repeatable. F.S.


Includes: immunophenotyping, ELISA, flow cytometry, microscopic techniques, image analysis, confocal, multiphoton and laser capture microdissection. Offered on a satisfactory-fail basis only.

(Cross-listed with B M S, EEOB, FS HN, GDCB, HORT, NREM, NUTRS, V MPM, VDPAM). Cr. 1. Repeatable. S.


Includes: Agrobacterium and particle gun-mediated transformation of tobacco, Arabidopsis, and maize, and analysis of tranformants. Offered on a satisfactory-fail basis only.

(Cross-listed with B M S, EEOB, FS HN, GDCB, HORT, NREM, NUTRS, V MPM, VDPAM). Cr. 1. Repeatable. F.


Includes: two-dimensional electrophoresis, laser scanning, mass spectrometry, and database searching. Offered on a satisfactory-fail basis only.

(Cross-listed with B M S, EEOB, FS HN, GDCB, HORT, NREM, NUTRS, V MPM, VDPAM). Cr. 1. Repeatable. F.


Includes: metabolomics and the techniques involved in metabolite profiling. For non-chemistry majoring students who are seeking analytical aspects into their biological research projects. Offered on a satisfactory-fail basis only.

(Cross-listed with B M S, EEOB, FS HN, GDCB, HORT, NREM, NUTRS, V MPM, VDPAM). Cr. 1. Repeatable. S.


Offered on a satisfactory-fail basis only.

(Dual-listed with BBMB 461). (2-0) Cr. 2. S.

Prereq: Credit or enrollment in MATH 166 and CHEM 178 and PHYS 222 or PHYS 112.
Physical methods for the study of molecular structure and organization of biological materials. X-ray diffraction, nuclear magnetic resonance, hydrodynamics and fluorescence spectroscopy. Registration for the graduate credit commits the student to graduate-level examinations, which differ from undergraduate-level examinations in the number and/or difficulty of questions.

(1-3) Cr. 2. S.

Prereq: Credit or enrollment in BBMB 461/BBMB 561
Practice in methods of X-ray diffraction, nuclear magnetic resonance, hydrodynamics and fluorescence spectroscopy as applied to macromolecules.

(Cross-listed with BCB, COM S, CPR E, GDCB). (3-0) Cr. 3. F.

Prereq: BCB 567, BBMB 316, GEN 409, STAT 430
Molecular structures including genes and gene products: protein, DNA and RNA structure. Structure determination methods, structural refinement, structure representation, comparison of structures, visualization, and modeling. Molecular and cellular structure from imaging. Analysis and prediction of protein secondary, tertiary, and higher order structure, disorder, protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions, protein localization and function, bridging between molecular and cellular structures. Molecular evolution.

Cr. arr.


By arrangement.

Cr. 1. Repeatable. F.S.

Prereq: Permission and signature of course administrator required.
Workshops in selected topics in biochemistry and biophysics. Credit in this course does not meet the requirement for advanced graduate electives in Biochemistry. Spring only: BBMB Undergraduate Research Symposium participation. Scheduled class meetings are required in addition to attending the symposium.

Courses for graduate students:

(Cross-listed with MICRO, V MPM). (3-0) Cr. 3. Alt. F., offered odd-numbered years.

Prereq: BBMB 405 or BBMB 506 and BBMB 507
Current topics in molecular aspects of immunology: T and B cell receptors; major histocompatibility complex; antibody structure; immunosuppressive drugs and viruses; and intracellular signaling pathways leading to expression of genes that control and activate immune function.

(2-0) Cr. 2. Alt. S., offered odd-numbered years.

Prereq: BBMB 405 or BBMB 420; or BBMB 506 and BBMB 507
Molecular mechanisms of cellular signaling including receptor activation, desensitization and cross talk, signal transduction pathways, and nuclear receptors. Discussion includes a variety of cell surface receptors and their hormone; growth factor and extracellular matrix activators; protein kinases; caspase and transcription factor downstream signals; lipids, gases and cyclic nucleotides as regulators of cell signaling. Course content includes current literature, student and instructor presentations and research proposal writing.

(Cross-listed with GDCB, NEURO). (2-0) Cr. 2-3. Repeatable. Alt. S., offered even-numbered years.

Prereq: NEURO 556 (or comparable course) or permission of instructor
Topics may include molecular and cellular neuroscience, neurodevelopment, neuroplasticity, neurodegenerative diseases, cognitive neuroscience, sensory biology, neural integration, membrane biophysics, neuroethology, techniques in neurobiology and behavior.

(2-0) Cr. 2. Alt. F., offered even-numbered years.

Prereq: BBMB 405 or BBMB 506 and BBMB 507
In-depth discussion of nucleic acid properties, structures and structure/function relationships. Interactions between nucleic acids and proteins will be emphasized.

(Cross-listed with MCDB). (2-0) Cr. 2. Alt. S., offered even-numbered years.

Prereq: BBMB 404 and BBMB 504; and BBMB 506 and BBMB 507; or BBMB 405 or BBMB 505 and or GDCB 511
Analysis of the biochemical processes involved in expression of eucaryotic genes and the regulation thereof, including RNA polymerase, transcriptional regulatory proteins, enhancers and silencers, chromosome structure, termination, RNA processing, RNA transport, RNA turnover, small RNAs, translational regulation, protein turnover.

Cr. 1. Repeatable. F.S.

Prereq: Permission of instructor
Student presentations.

Cr. R. F.S.

Prereq: Permission of instructor
Faculty, staff and invited guest research seminar.

(Cross-listed with AGRON, FOR, GDCB, HORT, PLBIO). Cr. 1. Repeatable.


Research seminars by faculty and graduate students. Offered on a satisfactory-fail basis only.

(Cross-listed with GDCB, MCDB, MICRO, V MPM). (2-0) Cr. 1-2. Repeatable. F.S.


Student and faculty presentations.

Cr. arr. Repeatable. F.S.

Prereq: Permission of instructor